A Sociological Study of Beyhaqi History Applying Robert Putnam’s Theory of Social Capital

Document Type: Research Papers

Authors

1 Department of Persian Literature

2 foreign languages and linguistics, faculty of letters and humanities, shiraz university,shiraz

Abstract

The topic in question is concerned with the sociological aspect of literature referring to Iran’s literary and historical experience. The basis of sociological criticism is built on the premise that literary works are the products of social life and that a comprehensive understanding of a work without considering its social aspects is impractical. To reach a better, more scientific, and more precise understanding of Abul Fazl Beyhaqi’s social depiction, the social capital theory has been employed by the authors of this article. What is depicted in Mas‘ud Ghaznavi's age is revenge, demotion and distrust. Putnum's theory of social capital is studied from three aspects: social trust, social cooperation and interaction, and social support. It is then applied to the story of "Busahl Zuzani’s plot against Khwᾱrazm Shah Altuntᾱsh”. In conclusion, there appears some causes which, by creating mistrust, negative interaction, and demotion, decrease safety and social capital and this is clarified as only a counter-social capital in this adventure.By analyzing Robert Putnam’s social capital theory and applying it to one of the most important part of Beyhaqi History, “Busahl’s plotagainst Altuntᾱsh” as an example, it is evident that the three major principles of this theory as social cooperation (individuals’ link and relations), cooperative norms and social support, social trust are clarified in a reversed negative way.

Keywords


A. A. Dastgheyb, Darᾱyene-ye naghd, Tehran: Art domain of Islamic Propagation Organization, 1387/2008.

Abul Fazl Mohammad Ibn Hossein. Beyhaqi, Trikh-e Beyhaqi, ed. A. A. Fayyᾱz, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 1375/1996.

A. H.  Zarrinkub,  Ashni ba naghd-e adabi , Tehran: Sokhan, 1380/2001.

A. Q. Foruzᾱni, Ghaznavian az peydyesh tforupshi, Tehran: Samt, 1384/2005.

C. E. Bosworth, Ghaznavid History, tr. H. Anusheh as Trikh-e Ghaznavin, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1378/1999.

E. Nozari, Trikh-e ejtem‘i-ye Iran az ghz t Mashrutiyat, Tehran: Khojaste, 1388/2009.

F. Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, New York: Free Press, 1995.

F. Vahidᾱ, S. Kalᾱntari and A. Fᾱtehi, “Rᾱbete-ye sarmᾱye-ye ejtemᾱ‘I  bᾱ  hoviyyat-e ejtemᾱ i-ye dᾱneshjuyᾱn” , Research Magazine of Isfahan University, (1383/2004).

H. Sotudeh, Jme‘e shensi dar adabiyte-e  frsi , Tehran: Ava-ye nur, 1378/1999.

J. Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory. tr. Manuchehr Saburi as Bonyd h-ye nazariye-e ejtem‘i, Tehran: Nashr-e Ney, 1377/1998.

J. Field, Social Capital, tr. Jalal Mottaqi as Sarmye-ye ejtemi, Tehran: M’oassese-ye ᾱli-ye pazhuheshi-ye tamin-e ejtemᾱi, 1385/2006.

J. Matini,   “Simᾱ-ye Masud Ghaznavi dar tᾱrikh-e Beyhaqi”, Yd nme-ye Abul Fazl Beyhaqi, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, (1386/2007), pp. 530-607.

L. Goldman, an Introduction to Sociology of Literature, (A collection of essays). tr. Mohammad Ja’far Puyandeh as Darmad-i bar jme’e shensi-e adabiyt , Tehran: Cheshmeh Press, 1381/2002.

L. Goldman, Society, Culture, Literature, tr. and Compiled by Mohammad Jafar Puyande as Jme‘e, farhang, adabiyt, Tehran: Cheshmeh Press, 1376/1997.

L. Lowenthal, “Jᾱmee shenᾱsi-e adabiyᾱt”, Iran Sociology Magazine 1 (1948), pp. 117-136.

M. A. Eslami Nodushan, “Jahᾱn bini-e Abul Fazl-e Beyhaqi”, Yd nme-ye Abul Fazl-e Beyhaqi, (1386/2007), pp. 303-345.

M. Azkiᾱ, and Gh. Ghaffᾱri, “Barresi-ye ertebᾱt-e  etemᾱd va moshᾱrekate-e ejtemᾱ i dar navᾱhi-ye rustᾱee-ye shahr-e kᾱshᾱn”, Nme-ye ‘olum-e ejtem῾i17 (1380/2001), pp. 3-31.

M.  Dabirsiᾱqi, Gozide- ye trikh-e Beyhaqi, Tehran: Join-stock Company of pocket books, 1369/1990.

M. Khalili, “Sarmᾱye- ye ejtemᾱi dar tᾱrikh-e Beyhaqi”, Magazine of Mashhad Faculty of Literature and Human Science 41, no.1 (1387/2008), pp. 152-171.

M. Kosari, Tamollt-i dar jme῾e shensi-ye adabiyt,Tehran: Bᾱz, 1379/2000.

M. R. Shafii Kadkani, Moosiqi-e sh῾er, Tehran: Nashr-e Agᾱh, 1370/1991.

N. Lin, Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

R. D. Putnam, “Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital”. Journal of Democracy 6 (1995), pp. 65-78.

R. Escarpit, The Sociology of Literature. tr. Morteza Katbi, Tehran: Samt, 1374/1995.

R. Saᾱdat, “Takhmin-e sath va tozi e sarmᾱye-ye ejtemᾱi-e ostᾱn hᾱ” , Fasl nme-ye refh-e ejtem῾i, Sixth year, (1385/2006), pp. 173-195.

R. Wellek, Theory of Literature, tr. Parviz Mohajer and Zia Movahhed as Nazariye-ye adabiyat , Tehran: Academic and Cultural, 1373/1994.